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Political Prisoners of Iran

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A., Maryam (n.d.). Prison Sketches: Memories of the women’s block in Evin, 1980. Iran Bulletin: Middle East Forum: 69-72.

Ahmadi, Jaleh (2005). Political prisoners: Iran and Afghanistan. Encyclopedia of Women and Islamic Cultures: Volume II, Family, Law and Politics. Suad Joseph (ed.) Brill: Leiden-Boston: 566-567.

Alizadeh, Parvin (Autumn 2001). Look closely, it is real. Iran Bulletin: 46-53.

Amini, Fariba (n.d.). Life inside, Soudabeh Ardavan’s prison drawings.

Arshadi, Shahrzad. 2009. “What Is There to Celebrate?” February 11. (pdf)

Arshadi, Shahrzad. 2007. “‘Ziba’ Award Celebrates the Life and Legacy of Zahra ‘Ziba’ Kazemi.” July 10. (pdf)


Bakhash, Shaul (1997). Letter from an Iranian prisoner. The New York Review. April 10: 52-53.

Baradaran, M. (1998, Winter). Simple Truths, Evin Prison: Summer 1988. Iran Bulletin, 19-20. (pdf)

Baradaran, M., & Kia, M. (1998, Winter). Witness to Massacre. Iran Bulletin, 19-20: 34–40. (pdf)

Beeman, William O. (1996). Torture, television, and Iranian culture. American Anthropologist, 98 (4): 875 -877.

Boroumand, Ladan and Roya Boroumand (2002). Terror, Islam, and democracy. Journal of Democracy, 13 (2): 5-20.

Committee for Solidarity with the Iranian People (CSIP) (1986). The Enduring Struggle: Women in Iran. (Pamphlet produced for International Women’s Day 1986 by the CSIP).

Darvish, H. (1999, Winter). And still lives our Story: Memories of an Iranian Political Prisoner. Iran Bulletin, 23-24: 43–49. (pdf)

Davis, Angela (2000) “Review of the Iranian Women’s Feminist Studies and Movements in the Past Two Decades and its Future Outlook,” Keynote address at he Eleventh International Conference of the Iranian Women’s Studies Foundation. Golnaz Amin (ed.)University of California, Berkeley, California, June 15-18: 62-73.

Ebadi, Shirin (February 5, 2001). Evin is not that bad. Payvand’s Iran News.

E-Zan: Voice of Women Against Fundamentalism in Iran (December 15, 2004). “E-Zan Featured Headlines.” E-Zan: Voice of Women Against Fundamentalism in Iran, Vol. 7.

Fakondeh (n.d.). Prison’s Memories. Iranian Women’s Network Association (SHABAKEH).

Ghaffari, Reza (n.d.).  Life and death of women in Islamic prisons. Iran Bulletin.

Godrej, Dinyar (2000). Dinyar Godrej listens to a messenger for lost blood. New Internationalist. Issue 327.

Goushegir, Ezzat (2006). Film reviews: ‘Women’s Prison,’ Manijeh Hekmat (director). Journal of Middle East Women’s Studies, 2 (1): 138-141.

Iranian Student Association (1976). 4000 Iranian women political prisoners in the Shah’s torture chambers.

Johnson, Roya (2004). The 1988 Iran Massacre: Crimes Against Humanity. American Thinker.

Makaremi, C., and Shafafi, P. (2019). Introduction. PoLAR, 42: 191-209.

Matin-Asgari, Afshin (2006). Twentieth century Iran’s political prisoners.  Middle Eastern Studies, 42 (5): 689-707.

Menin, Laura (2014). “Rewriting the world: Gendered violence, the political imagination and memoirs from the ‘Years of Lead’ in Morocco, “ International Journal of Conflict and Violence, 8 (1): 45-60.

Mihaila, Raluca (2002). “Political Considerations in Accountability for Crimes Against Humanity: An Iranian Case Study“. Hemispheres: The Tufts University Journal of International Affairs.

Nafisi, Majid (July 2008). I Cannot Forgive. Iranian.

Nafisi, Majid (June 2008) Prison Letters. Iranian.

Parvaz, Nasrin (2003). Beneath the Narcissus: A woman’s experience of Iranian prisons and beyond. Feminist Review 73: 71-85.

Rejali, Darius (2001). Executions and executioners. In Ehsan Yarshater (Ed.) Encyclopedia Iranica. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers.

Rejali, Darius (March 1983). The Birth of Modern Torture. Social Science Forum 1.

Sadeghi-Fassaei, Soheila and Kathleen Kendall (2001). Iranian women’s pathways to imprisonment. Women’s Studies International Forum, 24 (6): 701-710.

Salami, Mahnaz (2006). Unsung heroes: Conversations with three wives of political prisoners. Gozaar: A Journal on Democracy and Human Rights in Iran. Issue 2.

Shahrooz, Kaveh (2007). With Revolutionary Rage and Rancor: A Preliminary Report on the 1988 Massacre of Iran’s Political Prisoners. Harvard Human Rights Journal. Volume 20.

Shahrooz, Kaveh (July 2008). Twenty Years of Silence: The 1988 Massacre and the Quest for Accountability. (also available in Persian).

Shahrzad. (2000, Summer). And here, Virgins don’t die: An Eye-Witness Account of the Torture and massacres in the Islamic Republic’s Prison. Iran Bulletin, 25-26: 57–60. (pdf)

Talebi, S. (2019), Ethnography of Witnessing and Ethnography as Witnessing: Topographies of Two Court Hearings. PoLAR, 42: 226-243.

The March 8th Committee (1998). Bloody Facts and Tales of Heroic Resistance.

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Political Prisoners – Middle East – A Selected List

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Alia, Nada (2006). This is not living, and: women in struggle, and: Soraida, a woman of Palestine (review). Journal of Middle East Women’s Studies. 2 (3): 125-130.

Anderson, Patrick (2004). To lie down to death for days: the Turkish hunger strike, 2000-2003. Cultural Studies, 18 (6): 816-846.

Blila, F. Z., Menin, L., & Rabah, M. (2013). Trauma, Memory and History: A Comparative Reflection between Morocco and Lebanon (Workshop Report) (p. 7). Retrieved from

Booth, Marilyn (1987). Women’s prison memoirs in Egypt and elsewhere: Prison, gender and praxis. Middle East Report, 17 (6): 35-41.

Bowcott, Owen (2002). Hope dies in Turkish prison death fasts’ campaign. Guardian Weekly, January 19: 3.

Britton, Dana M. (1997). Gendered organizational logic: Policy and practice in men’s and women’s prisons. Gender & Society, 11 (6): 796-818.

Caglar, Ali, Meltem Onay and Caglar Ozel (2005). Women prisoners in Turkey. Middle Eastern Studies. 41 (6): 953-974.

Cruikshank, Barbara (1999). Feminism and punishment. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society. 24 (4): 1113-1117.

Davis, Angela and Gina Dent (2001). Conversations: prison as a border: Conversation on gender, globalization, and punishment. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 26 (4): 1235-1241.

Davis, Angela and Cassandra Shaylor (2001). Race, gender, and the prison industrial complex: California and beyond. Meridians: feminism, race, transnationalism, 2 (1): 1-25.

George, Susanna (2003). Women in prisons. Women in Action, No. 3.

Hasanbegovic, C. 1999. The Feminine is Political: Domestic Violence and its Similarities with Torture. Women’s Worlds 99: The 7th International Interdisciplinary Congress on Women, University of Tromso. DOI: Hasanbegovic_Claudia.pdf (Accessed: 12/16/2007)

Hooks, Gregory (2005). Outrages against personal dignity: Rationalizing abuse and torture in the war on terror. Social Forces, 83 (4): 1627-1645.

McClintock, Scott (2004). The Penal colony: The inscription of the subject in literature and law and detainees as legal non-persons at camp X-Ray. Comparative Literature Studies, 41 (1): 153-167.

Mohajer, N. (2001, March). Literature of captivity: The Book of Prison. Retrieved from (pdf)

Peteet, Julie (1994). Male gender and rituals of resistance in the Palestinian Intifada: A cultural politics of violence. American Anthropologist, 21 (1): 31-49.

Public Committee Against Torture in Israel (2007). “Ticking Bombs”: Testimonies of Torture Victims in Israel

Rajiva, L. July 27, 2004 Iraqi Women and Torture, Part I, Rapes and Rumors of Rape. DOI: (Accessed: 12/16/2007)

Rajiva, L. (July 30, 2004) Iraqi Women and Torture, Part II, Theater That Educates, News That Propagandizes. DOI: (Accessed: 12/16/2007)

Rhodes, Lorna (2001). Toward an anthology of prisons. Annual Review of Anthropology, No.30: 65-83.

Rhodes, Lorna (1998). Panoptical intimacies. Public Culture, 10 (2): 285-311.

Rivera-Fuentes, Consuelo and Lynda Birke (2002). Talking with/in pain: Reflections on bodies under torture. Women’s Studies International Forum, 24 (6): 653-668.

Schayegh, Cyrus (2006). Criminal-women and mother-women: Sociocultural transformations and the critique of criminality in early post-world war II Iran. Journal of Middle East Women’s Studies. 2 (3): 1-21.

Shalhoub-Kevorkian, Nadera (2005). Voice therapy for women aligned with political prisoners: A case study of trauma among Palestinian women in the second intifada. Social Service Review, 79 (2): 322 -343.

Schwedler, L. K. a. J. March 21-25, 2007. Policing and Incarceration in the Middle East and North Africa: Theoretical and Empirical Investigations. 8th Mediterranean Research Meeting. Florence, Italy. DOI: WS2_MRM2007.pdf (Accessed: 12/16/2007)

Simalchik, Joan. (May 2007). The politics of torture: Dispelling and the myths and understanding the survivors. Canadian Centre for Victims of Torture.

Slyomovics, S. (2012). Fatna El Bouih and the Work of Memory, Gender, and Reparation in Morocco. Journal of Middle East Women’s Studies, 8(1), 37–62.

Slyomovics, Susan (2005). The argument from silence : Morocco’s truth commission and women political prisoners. Journal of Middle East Women’s Studies, 1 (3): 73 -95.

Texeira, Mary Theirry (June 1997). Book Reviews. Gender and Society, 11 (3): 370-372.

Wagner, Christopher (2000). An end to torture: Strategies for its eradication edited by Dunér, Bertil. Human Rights Quarterly, 22 (2): 630 -634.

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Alcoff, L. (1992). “The Problem of Speaking for Others.” Cultural Critique. (21): 5-32.

Ellis, C. (2007). Telling Secrets, Revealing Lives: Relational Ethics in Research With Intimate Others. Qualitative Inquiry, 13(1), 3-29. doi: 10.1177/1077800406294947

Guillemin, M., & Gillam, L. (2004). Ethics, reflexivity, and “ethically important moments” in research. Qualitative Inquiry, 10(2), 261-280.

Heddon, D. (2007). Autobiography in Performance: Performing selves, 53-86. NY: Palgrave

Salverson, J. (2006). “Witnessing Subjects: A fool’s help.” In J. Cohen-Cruz and M. Schulzman (eds), A Boal Companion: Dialogues on Theatre and Cultural Politics, 146-157. NY: Routledge.

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Pellow, D.N., (2018). Political Prisoners and Environmental Justice. Capitalism Nature Socialism. 29: 4, 1-20.